Who I Am
- Primary Network Administrator of VOI Network Solutions – Winnipeg-based commercial Internet Service Provider and carrier.
- Involved with both Internet Exchanges in Winnipeg.
- Elected member on the Board of Directors for MBIX.
- Also involved with the creation and technical operations of WpgIX.
- Avid opensource software user/fanatic, and recently, contributor.
My Life with IPv6
- Running IPv6 since ~2004.
- Over tunnels for many, many years.
- Native IPv6 since December 2012, via Voi Networks BGP address space.
- My own network currently runs IPv6/OSPFv3 routing protocol.
- Most ciscodude.net/henchman21.net services are IPv4/IPv6 enabled.
NAT IS STUPID
- From a network admin’s perspective at least.
- NAT is NOT a firewall, it rewrites/masquerades source addresses in IP headers, and keeps track of those translations.
- Issues that arise from breaken end-to-end connectivity from NAT:
- Accepting direct Inbound connections of any sort.
- Direct Audio / Video Conferencing.
- P2P Applications (Online Games, Skype, Torrents, etc).
- Accountability - Logs/Monitoring outside a NAT lose valuable source details.
IPv6 Address Basics
- The IPv6 address space is 128-bits (2^128) in size, containing 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IPv6 addresses.
- Like IPv4, Network and Host bits.
- Unlike IPv4, Network and Host bits are usually equal.
- 1 or more 0 blocks can be shortened/replaced with ::
- Only once per address though.
- Leading zero’s can be dropped.
- Valid Host Addresses
- 2001:0DB8:0:0:8:0800:200C:417A = 2001:DB8::8:800:200C:417A
- 2604:4280:d00d::443 = 2604:4280:d00d:0:0:0:0:443
- 2604:4280:14:866::225:2 = 2604:4280:14:866:0:0:225:2
- ::1 (loopback) = 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
- :: = 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
IPv6 Address Sample
- My IPv6 privacy address at the time of writing: 2604:4280:d00d:202:1986:feb8:ccb0:78e1
- Lets break that down:
- Prefix: 2604:4280:d00d
- Network: $PREFIX:202
- Host: 1986:feb8:ccb0:78e1
- Valid Network Addresses
rfc4861: ARP -> ND
- Uses link-layer multicast instead of broadcast.
- Subcomponents include
- Address Resolution
- Duplicated Address Detection
- Neighbor Unreachability Detection
- Makes use of a number of predefined multicast addresses (much like routing protocols)
- all-nodes (FF02::1)
- all-routers (FF02::2)
- Many components require use of /64 subnet size.
SLAAC / DHCPv6
- DHCP for autoconfiguration has been replaced with SLAAC, and/or DHCPv6.
- SLAAC uses Neighbor Discovery, ICMPv6 RA discovery, to autoconfigure addresses.
- DHCPv6 does not currently send a default gateway, so SLAAC/RA is still required.
- IPv4 untrusted layer 2 issues have followed to IPv6.
- Rogue DHCP -> Rogue RA & Rogue DHCPv6.
- DHCP Snooping -> RA Guard in switches to mitigate.
v4 vs v6 Subnets
- Where a /24 is often used on LANs with IPv4, /64’s are strongly encouraged with IPv6.
- Recommended Site Prefix: /48 allows 64k /64’s.
- Residential providers often using DHCP6pd to allocate /60’s to Customer routers (Including Xplornet).
- Not using a /64 subnet prefix length will break many features of IPv6, including Neighbor Discovery, Secure Neighbor Discovery [RFC3971], privacy extensions [RFC4941], and Site Multihoming by IPv6 Intermediation [SHIM6], among others.
2001:db8:c0d0::/44 Example Multisite Company
2001:db8:c0d0::/48 Primary Office - Site 1
2001:db8:c0d0:10::/64 VLAN10 Servers
2001:db8:c0d0:20::/64 VLAN20 Users
2001:db8:c0d0:25::/64 VLAN25 Users Wireless
2001:db8:c0d0:30::/64 VLAN30 Phones
2001:db8:c0d0:300::/64 VLAN300 Guest
2001:db8:c0da::/48 Branch Office - Site 11
2001:db8:c0da:20::/64 VLAN20 Users
2001:db8:c0da:25::/64 VLAN25 Users Wireless
2001:db8:c0da:30::/64 VLAN30 Phones
2001:db8:c0da:300::/64 VLAN300 Guest
2001:db8:c0de::/48 Server Colo - Site 15
2001:db8:c0de:10::/64 VLAN10 Servers
2001:db8:c0de:10::1 Redundant Default Gateway 1
2001:db8:c0de:10::2 Redundant Default Gateway 2
2001:db8:c0de:10::25 SMTP Server
2001:db8:c0de:10::1:53 Auth DNS 1
2001:db8:c0de:10::2:53 Auth DNS 2
2001:db8:c0de:10::3:53 Caching DNS 1
2001:db8:c0de:10::4:53 Caching DNS 2
2001:db8:c0de:10::110 POP3 Server
Privacy Addresses (rfc4941)
- Extension to SLAAC.
- New random secondary privacy addresses regenerated periodically.
- Can cause havok for Session based applications which tie the session to your IP (which is often recommended to prevent session hijacking).
- Stands for Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses.
- Similar to RFC1918 addresses, for use within LANs and/or isolated/non-connected networks.
- Supposed to be generated using a specific algorithm, they are guaranteed of being somewhat globally unique as well.
- Many methods of translating/tunneling V4 over V6 and vice versa:
- Teredo (v6, over v4 UDP/3544)
- NAT64/DNS64 (v4, over v6)
- Stateless IP/ICMP Translation/SIIT (::ffff:0:a.b.c.d)
- 6rd (v6, over v4)
- In FreeBSD
ipv6_enable=“yes” is required to enable SLAAC.
SLAAC addresses can cause issues for mail and other servers where outbound traffic is expected to originate from a specific address.
iface eth0 inet6 static
pre-up echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/$IFACE/autoconf
The pre-up command disables SLAAC (where required).
Questions / End
- Question & Answer period as time permits.
- Presentation source/download available at github